The effect of self-efficacy, role clarity, and trust on customer well-being and loyalty through value co-creation : the case of fitness centres

Yousefian, Javad

November 2015

Thesis or dissertation

© 2015 Javad Yousefian. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright holder.

Nowadays, there are two critical concerns in societies such as British: customer defection in the sport clubs and the reduction of well-being. Therefore, sport clubs need to deliver programmes that are helpful to retain existing customers as well as improve customer well-being. Participation in value co-creative behaviours can be supposed as a means of obtaining the mentioned aims. However, literature review revealed that although there are a number of studies regarding the effect of customer participation on loyalty, the findings are debateable. More importantly, the review also indicated a scant research regarding the relationship between value co-creation and well-being (e.g., sport life satisfaction and overall life satisfaction).

Further, customers need different types of abilities to contribute to the service delivery process. Identifying and improving influential abilities can help to foster customer service participation. Another knowledge gap in the marketing literature is that determinants of customer value co-creation are not well-documented, especially in the sport service sector. Reviewing of the relevant literature indicated that self-efficacy as an individual factor and role clarity and trust as relational factors may influence participative behaviours. Given the mentioned arguments, a conceptual model was suggested to investigate antecedents and consequences of value co-creation in the sport sector through the lens of service-dominant logic perspective.

Moreover, at first a questionnaire was designed by reviewing of the relevant literature to assess the research constructs. Next, as the pre-testing stage 20 informants reviewed and gave feedback about the questionnaire. Then, in the pilot-testing stage 60 fitness club members answered the questionnaire. Data analysis indicated that the designed questionnaire is appropriate for collecting data in the main study stage. As the target population for the main study, data was collected among 346 members of fitness centres through convenience sampling, but only 343 completed questionnaires were usable.

Furthermore, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were used to analyse data. The results of structural model by AMOS confirmed that all intended antecedents (self-efficacy, role clarity, trust) significantly and positively influence value co-creation dimensions (compliance, advocacy, helping other members), except for the effect of self-efficacy on compliance. Role clarity also significantly influenced customer trust. In addition, of the three dimensions of value co-creation only advocacy had significant effect on customer loyalty. As well, while compliance and advocacy had significant impacts on sport life satisfaction, the effect of helping other members on sport life satisfaction was insignificant. Finally, both customer loyalty and overall life satisfaction were significantly and positively influenced by sport life satisfaction.

This study contributes to the limited body of empirical research on value co-creation, particularly within the sport service sector. Theoretical implication of the study is that it responds to the research calls to identify determinants and outcomes of customer value co-creation. Importantly, this study not only applies sport life satisfaction as a new concept in the sport marketing research but also reveals that this construct has a mediation effect in the relationship between the research constructs. Therefore, the sport club managers should have special attention to this factor. Another important application of this study for the managers is that customer participation in helping behaviours does not lead to positive outcomes in the context of this study.

In sum, the current research investigates a set of factors that enhance customer loyalty and well-being, which nowadays their reduction is a concern in societies. The findings of this study help the fitness centre managers and policy makers to know how to improve customer value co-creation, which dimension of value co-creation is more important, and the mechanism in which customer loyalty and well-being increase.

Business School, The University of Hull
Akamavi, Raphaël K.; Jayawardhena, Chanaka
Qualification level
Qualification name
3 MB
QR Code