(Im)mobility, 'hard to reach communities' and the practice of citizenship education
In: Beyond us versus them
Citizenship education with hard to reach learners in Europe
Kakos, Michalis; Ploner, Josef
Hard to reach
- This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial – NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Our aim in this short conceptual chapter is to explore current understandings of the designation Hard to Reach when applied to communities, and issues arising from the development of interventions targeting such groups. By exploring the meanings attributed to the term in relevant literature, we will attempt to identify the ambiguities present in the definitions and understandings of Hard to Reach, also seeking to summarise those ambiguities that raise key questions about the designation. We will then associate these questions with conceptualisations of citizenship and citizenship education, and explore their implications for our understanding of the relationship between Hard to Reach spaces and the mainstream, and for the implementation of citizenship education interventions designed within the mainstream, intended for Hard to Reach groups.
- Michalis Kakos and Josef Ploner (2016) (Im)mobility, ‘Hard to Reach communities’ and the practice of citizenship education. In: Kakos, M.; Müller-Hofstede and Ross, A. (2016), Eds., Beyond Us versus Them. Citizenship Education with hard to reach learners in Europe, Frankfurt: BPB & Verlagshaus Zarbock, Frankfurt/Main, pp.33-48
- Additional notes
- This is the author's accepted manuscript of a book chapter published in Kakos, M.; Müller-Hofstede and Ross, A. (2016), Eds., Beyond Us versus Them. Citizenship Education with hard to reach learners in Europe, Frankfurt: BPB & Verlagshaus Zarbock, Frankfurt/Main, pp.33-48.
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- BPB & Verlagshaus Zarbock