The implementation of industrial wastewater management policies in Thailand : relationship between companies, the public and government
Environmental sciences; Geography
Thesis or dissertation
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Wastewater is a cause of environmental concern throughout the world; industry, municipalities and agriculture are major sources of wastewater. About 6.8 million cubic meters of industrial wastewater are produced per day in Thailand, which contributes to an industrial wastewater problem in natural waterways because of inadequate wastewater treatment facilities. There are many government organizations and also laws involved with industrial wastewater in Thailand. Moreover, technology and public are involved in environmental management.
The aim of the research is to analyze the influences on industrial waste water management in Thailand in the field of policies and also technologies. Besides, to what extent are companies incentivized by public and public policy in decisions to adopt more sustainable behavior? A mixed method (interviews, survey questionnaires, and secondary data) was used to analyse industrial wastewater management in Thailand. A questionnaire survey was carried out in two rural provinces (Ayutthaya and Khon Kaen) with a total of approximately 200 respondents from communities in industrial areas. Additionally, 12 interviews were carried out with government officers, company and NGO representatives.
The findings indicate that main law involve with industrial wastewater is Factory Act, B.E. 2535 (1992) which is used to inspect all process of the factory including with establishment, operation, and waste management. The Act does not specify the types of technology used in wastewater management but the government officials from the Department of Industrial Works have responsibility to approve the technology used before establishment. Besides, Khon Kaen uses both technology and plant and algae-based systems (adopted from the King Bhumibol Adulyadej Rama IX’s project) in treating their wastewater. While, Ayutthaya company uses only technology to treat their wastewater. The public are concerned about water quality locally and nationally in Thailand, whilst suggesting that standards of environmental practices vary between companies. The view of the public in local government decision making is represented via elected village leaders. Village leaders also provide information on environmental issues to the community via public meetings. The interviews indicated that government and company representatives thought public participation is an important factor in environmental management. However, the NGO suggested that public engagement such as opening the company for visits are mostly effective in protecting the image of the company, rather than influencing practices. Thus, although there can be a harmonious relationship between companies and their local communities, it is difficult to gauge the practical influence of public participation on company environmental behaviour. In this project, brewing industry may be an example of “good practice” for public participation on industrial wastewater management in Thailand. However, wastewater is still a problem and need cooperation between government, companies, and also public to manage it.
- School of Environmental Sciences, The University of Hull
- Deutz, Pauline; Holloway, Lewis; Bunting, M. Jane
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- 4 MB